学院新闻
2017年1月14日托福真题回忆
2017-02-21 14:13 admin
 
READING SECTION
 
1. Naturalism and Nature in Art(tag: arts)

希腊亚里士多德时期开始崇尚自然主义,认为艺术就是生动再现客观事物,但也包括fiction as unicorns。
第一个例子:Z(人名)和J(人名)关于谁在艺术方面更有造诣的比拼。Z画了一串葡萄,引得鸟儿来啄;但是J的画作是curtain。Z看到这个curtain后让他的对手remove the curtain to show his paint. 但是curtain其实是后者画的。所以Z认输。
第二个例子,关于画花。进一步说明自然主义。那个时候开始,一些flowers 比如tulip有了代表的意义。但是慢慢有expressionist不再忠实于自然主义,有人认为photography不仅仅是camera决定,更是人的选择。达芬奇也认为observation带来的仅仅是likeness,copy就是mirror, 艺术应该更多涉及intelligent activity和inner life, including energy and strength. Georgia在画canna lily的时候也更注重表现其essence, 而不是image。
 
【必备词汇】
Fiction 虚构或者想象的事物
Perceive 觉察,意识到
Fragile 脆弱的
【相关TPO推荐】
TPO 2-3 Early Cinema
TPO 12 Transition to sound in film
TPO 22 The Birth of Photography
 
2. Cotton Ginning and Interchangeable Parts: The legacy of Eli Whitney (tag: history)

第一段:cotton在6000年前首次被种植,后来传到世界各地。
第二段:棉花和籽的分离称作ginning。
Egyptian cotton: longest fiber
American South沿海: Longer-staple
American South中部:shorter-staple
shorter-staple这个类型棉花和籽的分离费时费力,以前是由slaves来做。
第三段:Eli Whitley发明了cotton ginning, 大大提高了效率。(他有两个发明,一是cotton gin, 二是促进mass production的interchangeable parts)他于耶鲁毕业后,去Georgia seek fortune on plantation.  He was introduced to invent cotton gin. (这段还详细说了cotton gin是如何工作的,略。)然后一天可以获得50 pounds of clean cotton, 大大提高效率。
第四段:但是他的发明is simple and easy to copy, 所以他没有因此赚到很多钱。后来他manufacture and install the gins, 但是the plant was resent by planters.
第五段:后来由于他的social and political connection, 得到deliver 10000 muskets的机会。然后发明了interchangeable parts, 也就是一个人负责一个零部件,这些零部件is interchangeable and can be assembled, 提高工作效率。这成为了heart of mass production, which was further developed by Henry Ford. Whitney 的晚年一直致力于提升interchangeability。
 
【必备词汇】
Garment 衣服
Install 安装
Interchangeable 可替换的
Assemble 装配
Cotton gin 钆棉机
 
【相关TPO推荐】
TPO 18:Industrialization in The Netherlands and Scandinavia 
TPO 26:Energy and the Industrial Revolution 
TPO29:The History of waterpower
 
3. Climate in Triassic and Jurassic(tag: nature science )

第一段:Late Triassic and early Jurassic的气候特征: warm,aridity,四季分明。
第二段:3 broad climate regimes 是基于一些rocks去判断。
第三段:还有另外三个climate indicators揭示了当时的气候:
a. red beds, rocks with iron oxide, 意味着warm climate;
b. fossilized soils with caliche, 这种土壤存在于arid的地方;
c. high isotopes, variables that do not instantaneously decay, 揭示了季节变化。
第四段:Late Jurassic气候开始发生变化。
第五段:Middle and Late Jurassic时期,ocean basin的water 还有特定的鱼类揭示了那时海平面很高;而且内陆海很多。北极是没有ice and glaciers的,意味着那时候温度很高。
【必备词汇】
Aridity 干旱
Instantaneously 瞬间地
Encompass 围绕
【相关TPO推荐】
TPO 1 Groundwater
TPO 3 depletion of the Ogalla aquifer
TPO24 lake water
 
LISTENING SECTION
 
Conversation 1

学生去找管理Housing的职员要求换宿舍。学生现在住的是single-room,因为暑假有课和工作,但是旁边宿舍太吵了影响了他的作息,所以想换一间离他们远点的单人宿舍,但是employee说发过邮件告知不能在暑假换,但是学生没收到。最终housing employee还是给出了一些帮助,说是换一个double room或者out of campus的宿舍,但是学生都提出自己的顾虑和质疑。因为没有单间了,最后因为cheap price的原因,学生决定去double room。
 
Lecture 
自然科学(tag: flotsam science, ships, ocean currents, battery)

地球科学Earth Science。
先提出flotsam science的理论,professor介绍有一些ships停留在海上被冲走了,科学家通过tracing the movement of the ships掌握了ocean currents的一些规律。先提到第一个问题——有一种device 可以去探测,但是因为距离海面的深浅问题不行,举例了cargo ship in Pacific Ocean,还提到了organism thrive in upper portion of the ocean。第二个问题是battery的问题。电池很难维持很长时间。后面讲到一些关于glacier melt时候用到的device 消失了。最后有人提出一种新方式——用yellow ducks 可以prevent cold and pressure,并且它会more durable and inexpensive。
 
Lecture 
文学艺术(tag: imperfection, dissonance, rules, practices)

音乐史Music History。
讲到A和M两个概念。其中第二种形式的imperfection体现了dissonance,解释了下dissonance的含义是 Not harmonious in the composition,并且提到里面有很多需要遵循的rules和内部的互动。有学生提问,professor 提到这种dissonance is not pleasing and hurt ears,后面提到关于第二种音乐形式的几个practices: 1)to follow the rules,2)for champing,3)the tie of rules,最后提到views of history, 通过一些方式去substantialize the views。
 
Conversation 

教授一开始就在说学生的问题是没有理解一些关于galaxy的课堂知识点。Professor强调galaxy有两种类型,一个是minor,包括 a large one & a small one, small one 是一个部分;另一个major one是由好几个same size组成的。之后学生问到关于mid-term的考题是什么样的,professor说会找一些particular subjects of ongoing research。学生表示自己可能需要cancel time of laboratory,之后讨论了课本上学生觉得没有的知识,professor 强调sth on the textbook make sense,要学生去看去理解。
 
Lecture 3
社会科学(tag: temple, history, rebuilt, museums)

考古学Archaeology。
先提到Greek的一种特殊temple, 介绍了一些关于它的历史,曾经destroyed in the fire and then rebuilt,还有一些特殊的意义。后面讲到了museums, 说是一种cultural institutions, 可以用来exhibit and tell people the history about people who made it。
 
Lecture 4
生命科学 (tag: commercial forestry, post-harvest residues, nutrient, decomposition, mulch)

生物学Biology。
引入commercial forestry的概念,然后提到post-harvest residues。文章围绕soil,decomposition来讲。提到营养需求是nitrogen, 后面举了fungi的例子,讲它的decomposition给soil带来的养分好处等。最后提到一种new way, 提到一个新概念mulch盖料,覆盖层,用这个来加速decomposition。
 
SPEAKING SECTION
 
Task 1

You will need to accomplish an assignment to do a presentation. Which will you choose?
1.  Act out a scene from a play(with a partner)
2.  Explain your review of a novel you recently you read
3.  Read a selection of poem
Sample response
Among the three presentation choices, I would choose to act out a play with my partner. As a literature major, I have been deeply enticed by dramas, accordingly, I'd rather consider acting as a form of amusement than regarding it as a job. To illustrate, I remember the first year in college, I made a rather unusual decision to deliver a performance on Shakespeare's Drama Hamlet at New Year’s party instead of participating in student’s choir in singing. As a result, the decision paid off since I was granted an acting position at city's drama club, as a reward for my authentic and impressive performance. Ever since then, acting has become part of my daily ritual for my passion for it never dies out.
 
Task 2

Someone choose to work in a small company or organization with a few workers. Others prefer to work in a large company or organization with thousands of employees. Which do you think is better?
Sample response
I am in favor of working in a large corporation rather than a small firm because large corporations often are ruled and governed by stable regulations whereas small firm often undergoes management transformations in which causing employees time to adjust and adapt to the new leaderships. Take my brother Jim as an illustration, he used to work as a high-tech personal in a petite firm which was specializing in virtual reality technology. Initially he was so passionate about the job that he barely took any weekends off for his own pleasure, he was so determined that he'd be promoted with such exceptional skills and professionalism. But he was wrong, after a few years, he was worn out because the management seats were constantly going through changes and his promotions were never brought up because the new supervisors always bring their own persona to take charge in company affairs. Consequently, Jim had no choice but to quit the old firm and join an elite corporation that has business dealings nationwide, his excellent work has soon been spotted by the management team and he was granted promotion in a short term. Therefore, I'm inclined to listen to my brother Jim and work in a large company with stable leadership.
 
Task 3

 
【阅读】标题:Weekend Art Workshop
原因1:This will provide students whose majors are not art a relaxing environment to learn art without concerning about grade.
原因2:This will give art-majored students more opportunities to practice.
【听力】态度:不同意
原因一:学习目前已经有艺术类选修课程,是不评分的。所以感兴趣的学生可以去选择,不用担心学不好会影响分数,也可以达到这个目的。
原因二:这对于艺术专业的学生并不会有好处,Weekend Art Workshop在周末会占用教室,会cut the time available on weekends。 比如女生要做一个雕塑,需要花很长时间,她不可能周末搬回宿舍去做。
Sample response
School has implemented a new policy to carry out a weekend art workshop for students as it is believed that the program will provide non-art major students a relaxing environment to learn art without concerning about the grade. In addition, the new program will give art-majored students more opportunities to practice. The woman in the dialogue holds a negative opinion on this matter, she points out that there already have established optional art course for students, and it is not going to be scored in chart, students who are intrigued in art could choose this course without worrying about the grade, it serves similar purpose as the art workshop. In addition, the new program will not benefit art major students whatsoever as the art workshop will be carried out on weekends, so it will occupy classrooms that were initially available for art students who wish to complete assignments on weekends. For example, the woman needs to finish a sculpture in the classroom, it is impossible that she carries the sculpture back in the dorm to complete on weekends. Therefore, the woman believes the proposal to be invalid.
  
Task 4

【阅读】标题: Predator Release
定义:When human control the number of predators, the population of preys will increase. This will lead to some consequences.
【听力】例子:Sea urchins feed on coral reefs. Triggerfish feed on sea urchins. But recently, tourists came fishing, causing the decline of triggerfish. As a result, sea urchins grow to larger size, destroying coral reefs, which are habitats for many ocean animals. 
Sample response
Predator Release refers to a term that when human control the number of predators, the population of preys will increase. This will lead to some consequences.
In the lecture, professor further illustrated the term by using an example. Sea urchins feed on coral reefs and Triggerfish feed on sea urchins as a purpose to keep the food-chain system balanced. But recently, tourists came fishing in the area, causing the decline of triggerfish. As a result, sea urchins grow to larger size, destroy coral reefs, which are habitats for many ocean animals. As such, many other animals may also find themselves in grave danger.
 
Task 5
问题:The woman is concerned about her living situation. Because her sister will come to live with her. The thing is her apartment is too small for two of them to live.
解决方案1:She can put a bed in the living room and live with her sister in the old small apartment.
优点1:离学校近,不用搬家。
缺点1:have no privacy
解决方案2:She can find a new and bigger apartment herself.
优点2:They will have bigger rooms separately
缺点2:她最近工作和学习很忙,她妹妹又很着急搬过来。而是搬家也很麻烦
Sample response
The woman is concerned about her living situation because her sister will come to live with her, but her apartment is too small for both of them. She can either put a bed in the living room in the old small apartment or to find a bigger apartment herself. I am in favor of the second solution as privacy is of essence for an adult, without such, they may find themselves constantly disturbed and offended with/by each other, eventually leading to a relationship breakdown. In addition, if she is so worried about not having sufficient time for searching for an apartment, why not call an agency to deal with the issue? In this way, she could not only have all the time by herself to fulfill her studies , but also to have a brand new apartment for the two of them.
 
Task 6

话题:Business has two ways to extend a product’s life cycle.
要点1:开发新客户或新市场
例子1:drink在当地已经不受欢迎,销量一度低迷。但是把它引到新的市场后解决了这个问题。
要点2:开发产品的新用途
例子2:baking soda: 一开始作为baking的ingredient, 满满人们bake less后baking soda就不畅销了。 后来把它作为清洁产品销售,延长了产品的life cycle.
Sample answer
Professor illustrated two strategies for corporations to extend a product’s life cycle. One is to develop new customer base or to explore new market segments. Take an example of a soft drink company which was beaten up in the market shares for its existence do not stimulate customer`s interests anymore, they`ve decided to have the drink introduced to a new market and clients to resolve the issue. The other strategy being utilized is to exploit an alternative purpose for the product. Take baking soda as an example, it was initially utilized as a baking ingredient, but the customer’s enthusiasm towards the product has worn out because people started to bake less. Now the company promotes the product in another angle as cleaning product to extend its life cycle.
 
WRITING SECTION
 
Integrated writing task
Topic discussed: Whether the three methods to stop snakeheads from spreading is feasible (阻止黑鱼扩散的三种方法是否可行)
Reading: 
The reading raises three methods to stop the spread of snakehead fish because it threatens the ecosystem.
1. Making laws prevent people from transporting snakehead fish. Some people in the fish market will illegally transport or release unsold snakehead fish.
2. Educating fishers to catch snakehead. If they recognize that people actually can eat snakehead as a food source, they will catch many to eat and to sell.
3. Researching some poison to kill the snakehead. Though poison will also kill native fishes in the river, people can restock native fishes.
Lecture:
The listening contradicts all methods proposed by the author of the passage and points out their potential problems.
1. Even if people do not transport the snakehead, the spread will still continue. The reason is that there are already many snakeheads, and these snakeheads will move to other rivers even without human's efforts, because they can live and move on land as long as they are moist.
2. Educating fishers to catch snakehead will not help stop the spread of snakehead. Conversely, it may lead to the increase of snakehead. Because when fishers realize they can make profit by catching snakehead, they will introduce snakehead to other water bodies and raise snakehead in order to catch more snakehead, even this is illegal.
3. It is true that native fishes can be restocked; however, poison will also kill some insects and micro organisms, which cannot be restocked. So, native fishes that feed on these insects and micro organisms cannot grow to their original size. This is irreversible.
Glossary

ecosystem n. 生态系统
poison n. 毒
restock v. 再储存
 
Independent writing task
【Essay】
As a student of university that has a long break between university semesters, the university requires all students to do one of the following for one month during the break:
1. Students must take a course on the subject that has no direct connection to their majors of study (For example, a student majoring in engineering may take course in fine arts or social science.)
2. Students must volunteer to work in the university’s city or their hometowns to improve some aspects of life of the city or their own town.(For example, students may help local primary school children with their homework.)
Which one do you think is more beneficial for students in their university? Why?
Given detailed examples and reasons. Use your OWN words, do NOT use memorized examples.
【话题提示】
此题属于A or B二选一式的题目,关键在于在首段点明主题且亮明观点,在论证部分根据自己选择的观点展开论述,并在结尾段进行总结和重述。如果选择在学校所在城市或学生的家乡开展志愿工作的观点,可从以下三方面展开:
(1)从学期中紧张忙碌的学习工作中解脱,劳逸结合,张弛有度;
(2)将自己学期中与专业相关的所学转化并应用于实际生活中的具体问题,加深对知识和技能的理解和认识;及
(3)利用这一契机了解所在的城市或家乡的情况,加深对其的了解并为其发展和改善做出贡献。
Sample answer
By volunteering to work in the university’s city or their hometowns, students can just take this opportunity to apply what they have learned at university into the specific issues in the society, by which they may, in the meanwhile, deepen their understanding on those academic theories or textbook knowledge so as to have better command on these topics. For example, a student of from the major of statistics will participate in gathering data of eating habits of local people in the course of his or her project of restaurant evaluation survey, and he or she may be really practicing those statistics methods learnt in class with more familiarities.
 
(责任编辑:admin)
源于百年交大的昂立外语事业部 始终坚持“用爱启发,用智慧引导”的教学理念,聚集业内专业教师,打造自幼儿英语端、小学英语端、国内培优端至海外出国留学端的丰富产品链,为沪上3-18岁青少年提供英语语言培训服务。

400-820-8062


昂立外语青少年英语
昂立外语少年常春藤
徐汇番禺路报名处
番禺路868号
徐汇交大青少年培训基地
上海市广元西路55号(交通大学内)
广元西路报名处
上海市广元西路45号1楼东厅
广元西路托雅旗舰中心
上海市广元西路45号五楼511室
人民广场校区
福州路579号3楼
人广托雅旗舰中心
广西北路158号 黄浦图书馆12F
智培星人广校区
上海市福州路579号大众书局2楼
浦东一校

张杨路601号 浦东食品城9楼

上南世博校区
浦东新区上南路850号
田林校区
漕宝路70号C座401(光大会展中心)
南方商城校区
古方路18号601、702室
莘庄校区
七莘路182号B座5、6楼(近龙之梦)
大华校区
真华路928号第三空间B1108室
梅川校区
梅川路1353号(近万镇路)
天山缤谷校区
天山路310号海益大厦7楼
宝山校区
牡丹江路1534号3楼(宝乐汇星巴克对面)
彭浦校区
一二八纪念路928号2号楼6楼
中山公园校区
长宁路999号兆丰广场6楼
打浦日月光校区
打浦路198号2-3楼
七宝校区
新龙路399弄办公楼T3座3楼
嘉定校区
城中路67号(近张马路)
虹口校区
大连路1599号骏丰国际财富广场2楼
锦绣校区
成山路2000号、2002号(近锦尊路)
天钥桥路校区
天钥桥路498号华富城3楼
南翔校区
银翔路819弄2号中暨大厦
周浦校区
周康路28号万达广场F楼1501
宁国路校区
长阳路1568号5号楼一楼西四季广场
五角场校区
国宾路36号万达广场B座10楼1008室
曹杨校区
普陀区曹杨路368号3楼
安亭校区
墨玉南路1018号 西上海大厦3楼
虹桥天街校区
申长路869号4楼415-416
龙柏校区
红松路148号金汇广场2楼
龙之梦校区
柳营路8号K座2楼
金桥校区
平度路258号1号楼三楼A337金桥大拇指广场
浦东二校
张杨路620号中融恒瑞国际大厦东楼2201
智培星万达校区
上海市政通路177号万达广场C座1001-1002室
崇明校区
崇明区八一路84号
虹桥乐庭校区
虹桥路640号2楼
智培星浦外保屯路校区
上海市保屯路300号、306号
松江校区
新松江路927弄开元地中海306室
大华二校
大华二路308号
场北校区
场北路712号201
浦江校区
浦江镇江月路1850弄1-6号A座2F
新江湾悠方校区
殷行路1388弄1号202室商业广场
花木校区
浦东新区浦建路1463号
大宁校区
共和新路1988号大宁国际商业广场10座601室
颛桥校区
都市路3759号s01、s02
南桥校区
南奉公路8509弄28号2层205、206室
中原校区
中原城市广场杨浦区国和路701号1座4楼1404
宜山路校区
宜山路706号A1-3楼(9号线桂林路4号口楼上)
长寿路校区
澳门路588号2楼昂立外语
北上海校区
蕴川路1555号北上海商业广场2楼
青浦校区
公园东路1289号富绅广场2楼
金山校区
卫清西路355号山鑫城市广场3楼
联洋校区
芳甸路199弄56号,证大大拇指广场F1
森宏校区
长清路1200号,森宏商务广场一楼


网站地图  |  沪ICP备09038645号
上海昂立英语官方网站 地址:上海市徐汇区广元西路45号交大慧谷六楼 电话:400-820-8062


www.onlypeixun.com@copy 版权所有 Copyright 2001-2016 All rights reserved.